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Realist review: Just transition towards low emission, climate resilient and more inclusive societies in developing countries


Green Climate Fund
International Labour Organization

Just transition describes the transformation towards greener, more inclusive, and more resilient economies and societies. This learning paper provides the first realist review of global evidence on interventions targeting outcomes contributing towards a just transition in developing countries, spanning energy, agriculture and food, infrastructure, and ecosystem services. We found common enablers for just transition interventions across all or most sectors, including robust funding and financing mechanisms, strong alignment with needs and priorities, political will and ownership, social dialogue and stakeholder engagement. Hard and soft enablers differed across sectors. We also found common barriers to successful just transition across all sectors, including bureaucratic and legal barriers, exclusion and unequal distribution of benefits, and technical skills that can be enhanced. A short summary of findings is available in the companion brief.

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